Wellness Glossary

At Arivale, we deploy cutting edge science to turn your data into specific, actionable recommendations to help optimize your wellness. However, this scientific path is filled with complex words and abbreviations you may not have heard before.

As you read through your coach handouts and reports, use this glossary as a guide to better understand unfamiliar terms. Keep in mind that your Arivale Coach will also be there every step of the way to explain this information in greater detail—because success is never a solo endeavor.

Note: This glossary is a continuous work in progress. If you notice a term missing from this resource, please contact Arivale Concierge at 206-981-5834 or email concierge@arivale.com.

References:

  • Fischbach FT, et al. A Manual of Laboratory and Diagnostic Tests. 10th edition. Philadelphia: Wolters Kluwer. 2018.
  • Mahan LK, et al. Krause’s Food and The Nutrition Care Process. 14th edition. St. Louis: Elsevier. 2017.
  • Griffiths AJF, et al. An Introduction to Genetic Analysis. 7th edition. New York: W. H. Freeman; 2000.

A ratio that compares two important proteins produced by the liver: albumin and globulin.

The ACE gene provides instructions to make the angiotensin converting enzyme. This enzyme helps with salt and water reabsorption by the kidneys and also causes constriction of small arteries, which results in increased blood pressure. (Not reported for blood pressure due to conflicting evidence)

A combination of Achilles tendon pain, swelling and stiffness that reduces your ability to participate in physical activity. The Achilles tendon attaches the muscles in the back of your lower leg to your heel. Tendons attach muscle to bone or other structures.

The AGT gene provides instructions for making a protein called angiotensinogen. Once converted into its active form, it controls blood pressure by regulating the balance of fluids and salts in the body as well as the constriction of arteries.

An enzyme mainly found in the liver. It is a commonly measured marker for liver health.

The most abundant protein found in the blood. One of its major jobs is to regulate the exchange of water between the blood and the spaces between the cells. It is also a transport protein for a variety of molecules in the blood.

ALP is a protein found in all body tissues, especially the liver, bile ducts, and bone. ALP is used as a liver function test.

An allele is one of the possible DNA sequences that could be observed at a specific position in the genome. For example, the two alleles for rs9939609 (FTO) are T and A.

A substance, such as a lab measurement, that is determined by chemical analysis.

A partial or full tear of the ACL ligament, which is one of several ligaments that connects the thigh to the leg at the knee joint. A ligament connects bone to bone.

Antioxidants are substances that neutralize certain types of harmful molecules in the body (called "pro-oxidants"). These harmful molecules are found in the environment and are also made inside the body during normal metabolism. Antioxidants can be found in foods - rich sources include vegetables, fruits, spices, herbs, green tea, and red wine.

The APOC3 gene provides the instructions to make a protein called Apolipoprotein C3. This protein is found in triglyceride- and cholesterol-containing particles in the blood. Apolipoprotein C3 prevents the breakdown of these fat-rich particles in blood. (Not reported for heart health in favor of polygenic profile)

A type of omega-6 fat. This fat is commonly found in meat, eggs, and dairy.

Registered Dietitian Nutritionist (RDN), Certified Nutritionist (CN), or Registered Nurse (RN) who works with an Arivale member to help optimize his or her wellness. The coach is responsible for translating the complex scientific information from physician-ordered laboratory tests into actionable recommendations, to help the Arivale member reach their wellness objectives.

An enzyme present in tissues of high metabolic activity (heart, liver, muscle, brain, etc.). It is released into the blood after injury or damage to cells. Used as a marker of liver function.

A disease in which plaque builds up inside the arteries. Arteries are blood vessels that carry oxygen-rich blood to the heart and other parts of the body. Plaque is made up of fat, cholesterol, calcium, and other substances found in the blood. Over time, plaque hardens and narrows the arteries. This limits the flow of oxygen-rich blood to the organs and other parts of the body.

B vitamins play an important role in many physiological processes.  B vitamins participate in reactions that help the body extract energy from food, and supply some compounds that protect DNA.  A few examples include folate, vitamin B6 and vitamin B12.

A type of white blood cell involved in certain kinds of inflammatory or allergic reactions.

Bilirubin is a normal breakdown product of red blood cells.

A product made in the normal course of protein breakdown. Made in the liver and passed out of the body in the urine.

A calculation based on BUN and creatinine, and reflects kidney function. 

A substance formed by the liver and is a marker of inflammation. Also available as "hs-CRP" or "high-sensitivity CRP", which involves a more precise method of lab measurement.

A measurement that indicates the amount of circulating calcium in the blood. Does not reflect the levels of calcium in the bone.

Refers to the tight regulation and balance of calcium between the blood and the bones.

A gas that is made as a waste product of cellular metabolism, eventually exhaled via the lungs.

A large category of conditions that may involve the heart or the arteries that supply blood to the heart and brain. Examples include heart attack and stroke.

The CBS gene provides the information to make an enzyme that requires vitamin B6 to help manage homocysteine. (Not reported for homocysteine due to conflicting evidence).

The CETP gene provides the instructions to make an enzyme that plays a key role in the metabolism of HDL cholesterol. (Not reported for heart health in favor of a polygenic profile).

An electrolyte in the blood. Along with sodium, potassium, and carbon dioxide, it helps maintain proper acid-base balance and body fluid levels.

A chromosome is a single, long molecule of DNA in the nucleus of a cell. Chromosomes are highly organized structures that store genetic information in living organisms. Human cells contain 23 pairs of chromosomes, for a total of 46.

The COL1A1 gene provides the information to make a protein which is needed to make type I collagen. Collagens are the most abundant proteins in our body. They provide strength and support to many tissues including bone, cartilage, skin, and tendon. Type I collagen is the most abundant form of collagen and the major protein of bone.

The COMT gene provides the instructions to make a protein involved in the normal break down of brain chemicals, like dopamine, and hormones, like estrogen. (Not reported due to conflicting evidence).

Tissue that connects, supports or separates other tissues or organs. Examples include tendons, cartilage, and ligaments.

A hormone secreted by the adrenal glands. Cortisol influences blood pressure, the immune system, blood sugar, and many other body systems. Sustained elevations in cortisol can be an indicator of chronic physical or emotional stress. Cortisol levels typically peak shortly after waking up and are at their lowest after the onset of sleep. 

A waste molecule that is generated from muscle metabolism. The kidney filters creatinine from the blood into the urine, making it a good indicator of kidney function.

The CRP gene provides the instructions to make CRP, a protein that signals your body's immune system response to injury and infection as part of the inflammation process. Higher blood levels of CRP are a marker of general inflammation.

The CYP1A1 gene provides the instructions to make an enzyme involved in Phase I of the body's detoxification process. This enzyme converts some environmental toxins, such as car exhaust and cigarette smoke, to substances that will be further processed by Phase II detoxification enzymes for elimination. If these converted toxins accumulate in the body, they have the potential to contribute to the development of cancer.

The CYP1A2 gene provides instructions to make an enzyme that is involved in the metabolism of caffeine. 

Detoxification involves a number of processes in the body that remove harmful substances. The body detoxifies both environmental toxins and those generated as a natural byproduct of the body’s metabolism.

A type of omega-3 fat, which has been associated with reduced inflammation, and improved brain and cardiovascular health.

The second number in a blood pressure reading, it is a measure of your blood pressure when the heart is in a state of relaxation.

The parts of vegetables, whole grains, fruit, legumes, and nuts that cannot be digested by humans. The two types of dietary fiber are soluble and insoluble. Most fiber-rich foods contain both types of fiber in varying proportions.

DNA, or deoxyribonucleic acid, is the hereditary material in humans and almost all other organisms. Most DNA is located in the cell nucleus, but a small amount can also be found in the mitochondria. The DNA consist of four chemical bases (i.e. nucleotides): adenine (A), guanine (G), cytosine (C), and thymine (T). Human DNA consists of about 3 billion base pairs, and more than 99% of those bases are the same in all people.

A type of omega-3 fat.

A type of white blood cell that functions chiefly in allergic responses.

A type of omega-3 fat, associated with reduced inflammation, and improved brain and cardiovascular health.

A specific comparison of omega-3 (EPA) and omega-6 (arachidonic acid) fatty acids.

The FADS1 gene provides instructions to make an enzyme involved in the metabolism of longer chain omega-6 and omega-3 fatty acids.

A protein that reflects the body's iron stores and is considered the best standalone blood test to measure iron storage status.

Free radicals are a type of pro-oxidant molecule. They have the potential to damage cells and are found in both the environment and are produced in the body. They can be neutralized by antioxidants.

The FTO gene is expressed in fat cells and insulin-secreting cells of the pancreas, as well as many other tissues in the body. Research suggests that the FTO gene is associated with type 2 diabetes and obesity, although the mechanism is unknown.

A transport molecule involved in helping the liver metabolize drugs and toxins. Serves as a marker for liver function. Excessive alcohol consumption is sometimes associated with increased GGT levels.

The GC gene provides the instructions to make a protein that binds to vitamin D to transport it in the blood and protect it against degradation. Vitamin D is essential to many biological functions including normal bone health and calcium balance.

Genes are segments of DNA molecules that contain the instructions by which your body makes each of the many thousands of proteins required for life. Each gene is comprised of thousands of combinations of nucleotides adenine (A), thymine (T), cytosine (C), and guanine (G), which make up your genetic code. Each gene code combines the “letters” A, T, C and G in various ways. These “letters” spell out the “words” that specify which amino acid is needed to make the proteins required for proper development and function.

A genetic variant is a region of the genome where there is a difference (variation) in the genetic information between individuals. There are different types of genetic variants and they can be common or rare.

The genetic information at a specific position in the genome, looking at both chromosomes in the pair – one from each biological parent. In the case of a SNP, this corresponds to the two nucleotides at a specific position (one on each of the chromosomes in the pair). For example, the genotypes for rs9939609 (FTO) are TT, AT and AA. Genotypes TT and AA are homozygous, and AT is heterozygous.

Genotype frequency is the relative rate of occurrence of a specific genotype within a given population.

A major blood protein. Globulin is produced by the liver and is important for the immune system.

A measurement of blood flow through the kidneys, and an important metric of kidney function.

Tiny filters in the kidneys that remove waste from the blood.

A simple sugar that is an important energy source for the body. Otherwise known as blood sugar.

To remove harmful compounds, your body has detoxification pathways described as Phase I and Phase II. Phase I often involves adding oxygen to the compound to make it reactive, and Phase II involves neutralizing the now-reactive compound so it can be more easily excreted from the body. There are more than 15 glutathione S‐transferase (GST) enzymes involved in Phase II.  The GST enzymes are responsible for neutralizing carcinogens that may cause DNA damage, potentially leading to cancer.

Collectively refers to all the bacteria in your digestive tract. There is a consensus among scientific and medical experts that the gut microbiome has a profound influence on human health. However, research on the gut microbiome is still in its infancy.

A GWAS is an observational study of a large number of people to identify genetic variants associated with a trait (such as a disease). This method searches the genome for variations, called single nucleotide polymorphisms or SNPs (pronounced “snips”), that occur more frequently in people with a particular trait in comparison to people without the trait. For Arivale polygenic profiles, we look in a member’s genome to see which of the variations identified by the GWAS they have and add up their predicted effects to calculate their profile.

A collection of HDL molecules, packaged together in a vehicle called a "particle". A higher HDL-P count is associated with a reduced risk of cardiovascular disease.  

Arivale's system for organizing blood, genetic and lifestyle data.

The percentage (by volume) of whole blood that consists of red blood cells. 

A protein in red blood cells that carries oxygen to the tissues.

A measure in blood that reflects average blood sugar levels over three months. Also called “glycated hemoglobin”.

Hereditary hemochromatosis causes the body to absorb too much iron from food. Excess iron is stored in organs, especially the liver, heart, and pancreas. Iron overload can lead to life-threatening conditions, such as liver disease, heart problems, and diabetes. Hereditary hemochromatosis is classified into 5 different types depending on the gene affected by the genetic variant(s) and the age of onset of the disease. Certain variants in the HFE gene can lead to HFE-associated hereditary hemochromatosis (HFE-HH), the most frequent type of hereditary hemochromatosis, especially in Caucasians. Source — https://ghr.nlm.nih.gov/condition/hereditary-hemochromatosis and https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/books/NBK1440/

When looking at a specific position in the genome, each biological parent passed down different information. For example, one parent passed down an “A” and the other parent passed down a “T”, creating the heterozygous AT genotype for rs9939609 (FTO).

The HFE gene provides instructions to make a protein involved in sensing the amount of iron in the body. This protein plays an important role in how the body regulates iron absorption and storage. 

HDL is considered to be the "good" form of cholesterol. HDL helps remove harmful cholesterol from the arteries and then transports it back to the liver. HDL is associated with a reduced risk of cardiovascular disease.

CRP is substance formed by the liver and is a marker of inflammation. Also available as "hs-CRP" or "high-sensitivity CRP", which involves a more precise method of lab measurement.

A validated calculation derived from blood glucose and insulin. HOMA-IR estimates the progression toward insulin resistance, which is a condition that may develop into type 2 diabetes. 

An amino acid that naturally occurs in the body. High levels are associated with increased cardiovascular disease risk.

When looking at a specific position in the genome, each biological parent passed down the same information. For example, one parent passed down an “A” and the other parent passed down a “A”, creating the homozygous AA genotype for rs9939609 (FTO).

A chemical process that turns liquid unsaturated fats into a solid form.  The net result is a trans fat. Examples of food that may contain trans fats include commercially baked goods and margarine spreads.

The IL1A gene provides the instructions to make interleukin-1 alpha, a protein associated with chronic inflammation of the gums and periodontal (gum) disease. Periodontal disease is a leading cause of tooth loss and may be associated with other chronic diseases, including diabetes and heart disease.

The IL6 gene provides the instructions to make interleukin-6 (IL-6), a small protein that signals your body's immune system response to injury and infection as part of the inflammation process. (Not reported for inflammation due to conflicting evidence)

The IL6R gene provides the instructions to make IL-6 receptor, a protein involved in signaling your body's immune system response to injury and infection as part of the inflammation process. One of the primary actions of this protein is to trigger the production of CRP, a major inflammation marker.

Acute inflammation is a normal immune response and an essential step in tissue healing. However, chronic inflammation is not beneficial. An increasing number of common disorders, such as obesity, heart disease, arthritis, and inflammatory bowel disease have been associated with chronic low-grade inflammation.

The inheritance model describes the way in which a genetic trait can be inherited. At Arivale we consider three inheritance models: dominant, recessive, and additive. Dominant - For some genetic variants, one copy of the letter associated with the trait is enough to produce the full effect. If you have no copies, you have no effect. Recessive - For other genetic variants, two copies of the letter associated with the trait are required to produce the full effect. If you have one copy, you have no effect. Additive - Finally, for some genetic variants, each copy of the letter associated with the trait increases the effect. If you have one copy, you have a partial effect, If you have two copies, you have a full effect. If you have no copies, you have no effect.

Insoluble fiber does not soak up water. This type of fiber acts like a broom that sweeps through the colon, and aids in elimination and bowel regularity.

A hormone that stimulates the uptake of glucose (sugar) from the blood into the cells.

A condition that reflects the body's progressive inability to respond to insulin and transport glucose from the blood into the cells. Insulin resistance may progress into type 2 diabetes.

The LCT gene provides the instructions to make an enzyme called lactase which breaks down lactose, the main carbohydrate in milk. Depending on your genotype, your lactase production may decline with age, influencing your ability to digest dairy products.

A collection of LDL molecules, packaged together in a vehicle called a "particle".  LDL particles carry both triglyceride and cholesterol. Higher levels are associated with cardiovascular disease risk.

Large-sized LDL are the least damaging of all the LDL sizes. A greater LDL size is favorable and decreases heart disease risk.

In isolation, small-sized LDL particles are the most detrimental type of LDL. However, studies have shown that when all factors are taken into account, the total LDL-P value is the most important LDL-related marker.

A type of vegetable that includes beans, peas, and lentils.

The most prevalent form of dietary omega-6 fat. Common sources include nuts, seeds, and vegetable oils.

LDL is considered to be the "bad" form of cholesterol. LDL contributes to plaque deposits that damage arteries. Higher levels of LDL are associated with cardiovascular disease.

The LPL gene provides the instructions to make an enzyme called lipoprotein lipase that removes lipids (fats) from blood. (Not reported for heart health in favor of a polygenic profile)

A type of white blood cell that fights viral infection and produces antibodies.

A mineral that is required for energy production, muscle and nerve function, blood pressure regulation, and many biochemical reactions in the body.

The average mass of hemoglobin in each red blood cell.

The average concentration, or density, of hemoglobin in each red blood cell.

The average volume of red blood cells (RBCs). A low MCV indicates a small average RBC size, whereas a high MCV indicates a large average RBC size.

A heavy metal toxin. High levels of mercury can be found in some fish and in dental amalgams.

A calculated measure of the total energy expended during physical activity. To calculate, take the MET value for a specific physical activity and multiply it by the duration (in hours).

A way to measure how much energy you burn during any chosen physical activity. Every activity, from watching TV to going for a run, has a MET value. The more vigorous the activity, the higher the MET value.

A substance produced by metabolism or by a metabolic process. Metabolites are not just by-products; they perform many functions in their own right. For example, some metabolites are messenger molecules in the body.

An essential amino acid required for protein synthesis.

The MTR gene provides the information to make an enzyme that requires methylated vitamin B12 to help manage homocysteine. (Not reported for homocysteine due to conflicting evidence)

An enzymatic process that impacts the immune system, nervous system, detoxification, and DNA repair. Genetics and the environment both influence methylation.

A marker of vitamin B12 status.

A type of white blood cell that fights bacterial infection.

Monounsaturated fats are heart-healthy options when they displace saturated fat in the diet. Sources include olives, olive oil, avocado, nuts, and seeds.

The MTHFR gene provides the instructions to make an enzyme important in processing the B vitamin folate. B vitamins help manage homocysteine, a metabolite associated with heart, brain, and mental health.

The MTR gene provides the information to make an enzyme that requires methylated vitamin B12 to help manage homocysteine. (Not reported for homocysteine due to conflicting evidence)

The MTRR gene provides the information to make an enzyme that converts vitamin B12 to its methylated form. Methylated vitamin B12 is required for the function of a key enzyme involved in managing homocysteine. (Not reported for homocysteine due to conflicting evidence)

Includes muscles, bones, cartilage, ligaments, and tendons.

A type of white blood cell that fights bacterial infection. Neutrophils are most abundant of all white blood cells.

The NOS3 gene provides the instructions to make an enzyme known as eNOS. This enzyme makes nitric oxide, which plays a key role in relaxing blood vessels, controlling blood clotting, and protecting against plaque buildup. These factors are important to protect against heart disease.

Nucleotides are the building blocks of DNA including adenine, guanine, thymine, and cytosine. They are represented by the letters A, G, T or C.

The science of the effects of individual genetic variations in response to diet, exercise and lifestyle and vice versa. Each of these environmental factors can cause genes to be “expressed” in a positive or negative way. Genetic research enables us to identify key areas to help achieve an individual’s optimal health. Nutrigenetics is how different genotypes can alter the impact of the nutrients on the phenotype. Different genotypes can affect how the body responds to specific nutrients. Nutrigenomics is how the nutrients consumed can alter the impact of the genotype on the phenotype. This process may include changes in gene expression in response to the nutrients consumed.

Omega-3 fatty acids are compounds that play an important role in human health. They are components of cell membranes and act as signalling molecules within the inflammatory process. EPA, DHA, and DPA are examples of omega-3 fats.

Sum of EPA, DHA, and DPA omega-3 fatty acids.

Omega-6 fatty acids are compounds that play an important role in human health. Like omega-3 fatty acids, they are components of cell membranes and act as signaling molecules within the inflammatory process. Linoleic acid and arachidonic acid are examples of omega-6 fatty acids.

The damage that results from the action of an excessive exposure to pro-oxidants (a subset of which are called free radicals). Pro-oxidants are a type of harmful molecule that the body routinely encounters. Pro-oxidants are found in the environment and are also made inside the body in the course of normal metabolism.

A cell fragment that plays a key role in blood clotting.

The term “polygenic” simply means more than one genetic variant. A polygenic profile is the sum of the effects of common genetic variants implicated for a quantitative trait or complex disorder. These more common variants typically have smaller effects than rare variants, but the sum of these effects is more significant than each variant individually.

An electrolyte and mineral in the blood that plays a role in nerve, muscle, and kidney function.

The PPARG gene provides the instructions to make a protein that controls the expression of many genes involved in regulating insulin sensitivity as well as the building and breaking down of fat cells.

Injury prevention strategies that incorporate techniques such as flexibility and resistance training. Examples include progressive strength training, Pilates, and yoga.

Pro-oxidants, a subset of which are called free radicals, are a type of harmful molecule that the body routinely encounters. Pro-oxidants are found in the environment and are also made inside the body in the course of normal metabolism.

Proteins are molecules that are critical for the normal functioning of the human body. They are essential for the structure, function, and regulation of the body's tissues and organs. Proteins are made up of smaller units called amino acids.

A measurement of the amount of RBCs per unit of blood volume. RBCs transport oxygen-carrying hemoglobin, which deliver oxygen to the body tissues.

A calculation of the diversity of RBC sizes. Elevated levels would suggest that a person has a high diversity of small, medium, and large RBC sizes.

The reference genome was released by a research consortium in the scientific community (Genome Reference Consortium, GRC, at NCBI). This is the genome that is used to understand other genomes by comparison. The reference genome does not represent a single person, but rather a combination of thirteen healthy male and female volunteers from Buffalo, New York. It does not represent the ‘perfect’ or ‘ideal’ genome. It is constantly under revision as there are still regions in the human genome which are uncertain. Source — https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/grc

The risk allele is the genetic variant‘s allele that is found to be more frequent in people with a disease or health condition compared to people without disease. This variant’s allele is said to be “associated” with the disease and identified as the “risk allele.”

An rsID, or “reference SNP cluster ID”, is a unique identification number linked to a specific genetic variant in the genome such as a SNP. Scientists and medical professionals, to some extent, use the rsID as a standard way to report a specific genetic variant in a person's genome.

Saturated fat contributes to higher LDL cholesterol production, and is one of the factors that promotes arterial plaque formation. These fats also contribute to insulin resistance, which increases the risk for developing diabetes. Saturated fats are found in animal products such as meat, dairy, cheese, as well as some plant products such as coconut oil and palm oil.

A new industry launched by Arivale that uses cutting-edge science, personalized data, and tailored coaching to deliver prioritized actionable recommendations that inspire individuals to achieve and sustain their wellness potential.

The SLC2A2 gene provides the instructions to make GLUT-2, a protein that transports glucose in the blood. Research suggests that GLUT-2 is a glucose sensor and is important to maintain blood sugar balance. (Not reported for diabetes due to conflicting evidence)

A single nucleotide polymorphism, or SNP (pronounced "snip"), is a variation at a specific single position in the genome among individuals. Like other types of genetic variants, SNPs can be found in genes and in intergenic regions. 

The SOD2 gene provides the instructions to make an antioxidant that helps to protect cells from free radicals formed when cells produce energy. Free radicals can damage cells if not cleared. (Not reported for cancer and antioxidant status due to conflicting evidence)

The SOD3 gene provides the instructions to make a key antioxidant that neutralizes free radicals in the spaces surrounding cells. This antioxidant is especially important for protecting blood vessels from oxidative stress.

An electrolyte and mineral that helps maintain fluid balance between cells and the blood. Sodium also plays a role in nerve and muscle function.

Soluble fiber has the ability to soak up water. It binds to cholesterol and toxins allowing them to be eliminated from the body. Soluble fiber increases the feeling of fullness after eating a meal, and is also helpful for improving blood sugar balance, maintaining a healthy weight, and promoting the growth of friendly bacteria in the gut.

The first number in a blood pressure reading, it is a measure of your blood pressure when the heart is in a state of contraction.

The TCF7L2 gene provides the instructions to make a protein that controls the expression of many genes involved in the function of insulin-secreting cells. Insulin is a hormone that is essential to control blood sugar.

The TNF gene provides the instructions to make TNF-alpha, a small protein that signals your body's immune system response to injury and infection as part of the inflammation process. (Not reported for inflammation due to conflicting evidence)

A fat-like substance that is used as the raw material to make compounds like some hormones and vitamin D. 

Measurement of the total amount of protein in the blood per unit volume (including both albumin and globulin).

A type of fat created by industrial processing of food. These fats are made when vegetable oils are or partially hydrogenated. Examples of foods that may be high in trans fats include fried foods, baked goods, frozen foods and margarine. Trans fats have been associated with a number of health risks, including increased LDL cholesterol, and increased diabetes risk.

The ratio of triglycerides to HDL cholesterol.

The most common type of fat found in the blood, triglycerides are an important indicator of heart health. They serve as a source of energy. They come from food, and are also produced by your body.

TMAO (Trimethylamine-N-oxide) is a metabolite that begins its formation in the gut. Red meat intake accelerates TMAO production when specific bacterial groups are present within the gut microbiome. Elevated TMAO levels are potentially associated with cardiovascular disease.

Product made when protein is broken down in the body. Made in the liver and passed out of the body in the urine.

Chemical created in the body from the breakdown of purines. Purines are found in liver, anchovies, mackerel, dried beans and peas, and beer.

The VDR gene provides instructions to make vitamin D receptor (VDR). When vitamin D binds to VDR, other genes get turned on or off to help manage many important body processes, including calcium absorption. (Not reported for bone health due to conflicting evidence)

A measure of vitamin D levels. Vitamin D is actually a hormone and is produced by the body in response to sunlight. Vitamin D plays a key role in the body's processing of calcium.  

A measurement of the amount of WBCs per unit of blood volume. There are five main types: neutrophils, lymphocytes, monocytes, eosinophils, and basophils.

A trace mineral involved in immune function and DNA synthesis.